Founded by Jeff Hawkins (who also founded Palm Computing), Numenta promises to deliver technology on a few years really worth watching for:
Numenta, Inc.: "Numenta is developing a new type of computer memory system modeled after the human neocortex. The applications of this technology are broad and can be applied to solve problems in computer vision, artificial intelligence, robotics and machine learning. The Numenta technology, called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM), is based on a theory of the neocortex described in Jeff Hawkins' book entitled On Intelligence (with co-author Sandra Blakeslee)."
From what's been hinted at Hawkins book, they are going to deliver HTM (which is the basic mechanism used by our brain to learn and recall patterns, giving us what we call "thinking") to application developers, allowing more intelligent industrial machines and end-user software applications.
Also check a pdf they've just released describing the basic concepts behind HTM.